• Basic Concepts in Optical Microscopy: Köhler illumination; magnification; resolution; reflection and refraction of light; refractive index; properties of microscope lens; focal point and focal length; numerical aperture; immersion liquids; chromatic and spherical aberrations.
  • The structure of compound optical microscope: microscope stage; light sources; microscope focus; condenser; objectives; microscope tube; eyepice.
  • Types of compound optical microscopes (working principle; advantages and disadvantages): bright-field microscope; inverted microscope; dark-field microscope; phase contrast microscope; polarized light microscope; Nomarski interference microscope.
  • Stereomicroscopes: working principle; advantages and disadvantages.
  • Electron microscopes:

Transmission electron microscope (TEM): comparison with light microscopy; electron optical column; electronic and control console; a vacuum system; applications; advantages and disadvantages.

Scanning electron microscope (SEM): working principle; microscope column; detection system; operating system and display; applications; advantages and disadvantages; special types of SEM (ESEM);

Atomic force microscope (AFM): working principle; advantages and disadvantages; applications.

  • Histotechnology: fixation; dehydration; clearing and wax impregnation; sectioning and preparing tissue for staining; staining; artifacts in histological and cytological preparations.









Last updated at: February 02, 2015.